Vogel identifies and draws together a short list of the core elements, generally agreed upon as essential requirements for any discussion centred on theory of change:
- Context - social, political and environmental conditions, existing actors able to influence change
- Long-term change- what is it and for whom?
- Process/sequence of change anticipated
- Assumptions on how change may occur, in order to develop appropriate strategies
- Diagram and narrative summary to effectively capture the outcomes of the discussion
Using these as points of reference, the review examines the most effective means of establishing a logical pathway to desired outcomes using the ToC model. Vogel highlights the need to establish ToC as an ongoing process developed alongside all phases of a programme from inception to impact evaluation and emphasises that assumptions should be made explicit within the organising framework of a project.